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A little while back I released the very first version of ESPToy — a ESP8266 Development Board with a few useful on-board components like color LED, button, and temperature sensor. It has a built-in ATmega644 microcontroller, and pin headers for plugging in a ESP-01 through-hole WiFI module. Shortly after that, I discovered the Lua firmware (named nodemcu) for ESP8266. At first I didn’t pay much attention — Lua is a new language that I’ve never used before, and I wasn’t sure if it’s worth my time learning about it. At the same time I was getting tired of the AT firmware (the original firmware that comes with ESP), partly because it’s not very stable, and partly because it’s complicated to use and involves an extra microcontroller to communicate with it.

Over time I saw increasing development and community support on the Lua firmware. So I became more curious. The final push came recently: there was a supply chain problem of the ATmega644 microcontroller. I was about to purchase a new batch of ESPToy 1.1, but the microcontroller is difficult to source from my suppliers in China. I decided that I should give the Lua firmware a try — if it works, I don’t have to use an extra microcontroller any more!

That’s where I wish I had known it earlier — the Lua firmware is, in my opinion, all around better than the AT firmware. It’s easy to use, especially for writing simple web servers; it’s more stable, and best of all, it runs Lua scripts directly on the ESP module, removing the need to use an extra microcontroller. So here comes ESPToy 1.2, with a surface mount ESP8266 module, pre-flashed with the Lua firmware and a start-up demo (WiFi color LED demo):

Built-in Components. Similar to the previous versions, ESPToy 1.2 has a built-in color LED, pushbutton, mini-USB port and the CH340G USB-serial chip. The pushbutton is internally wired to GPIO0 and can be used to re-flash the firmware if needed. The way Lua firmware works is that you send scripts to it through the serial port. The module will execute the script on the fly, and return results (if any) back to the serial port. This is different from a standard microcontroller program in that the scripts are interpreted (not compiled ahead of time), much like how Javascript, Python, and other scripting languages work. This provides a lot of flexibility, including receiving and running a dynamic script on the fly!


Pin Definitions. ESPToy 1.2 internally assigns the following pins for the built-in components:

  • Lua pin 2 (hardware GPIO4): Red LED
  • Lua pin 1 (hardware GPIO5): Green LED
  • Lua pin 4 (hardware GPIO2): Blue LED
  • Lua pin 3 (hardware GPIO0): Button (active low)

Note that these pin names refer to the pin indices defined by the Lua firmware. These are different from the hardware GPIO pin numbers.

One big advantage of the Lua firmware is that it runs directly on the ESP microcontroller, removing the need for an extra microcontroller. This simplifies the hardware design and reduces cost. The module comes with 1 analog pin and several digital pins. It can do most things that an Arduino can, such as writing and reading a GPIO pin, reading an analog sensor, PWM, I2C, SPI, UART. But what it really excels is the capability of creating web services and handling WiFi connections. It also has a file system, storing scripts and data directly to the built-in flash memory. This is a huge advantage over Arduino, and it’s pretty much an all-in-one solution to build Internet of Things (IoT) gadgets. Probably the only disadvantages would be the relatively small number of available pins, particularly analog pins, and that the PWM speed is quite low. Other than these, most Arduino applications can be easily adapted to Lua scripts, but now with WiFi capability!

Lua 101. So what’s the catch? Well, learning a new language is a barrier. Lua is similar to C++ and Java, but it’s after all different, and the syntax is quite flexible, so some code may look obscure at first. To begin, the Hello-World example is pretty trivial:

print("Hello ESPToy!")

notice that unlike C++ and Java, there is no semi-colon at the end. Next, we can blink the LED on ESPToy by:

gpio.mode(led, gpio.OUTPUT)
gpio.write(led, gpio.HIGH)
gpio.write(led, gpio.LOW)

On ESPToy, the red LED is connected to GPIO2, green to GPIO1, and blue to GPIO4. The above lines are very much similar to Arduino code. Note that just like Python and Javascript, you don’t need to define variable types — the variable types are determined dynamically, so it’s quite flexible. Here is an example of a for loop:

gpio.mode(led, gpio.OUTPUT)
for i=1,10 do
  gpio.write(led, gpio.HIGH)
  gpio.write(led, gpio.LOW)

Next is a demo of using interrupt:

gpio.mode(led, gpio.OUTPUT)
gpio.write(led, gpio.LOW)
gpio.mode(button, gpio.INT)
function button_cb(level)
  if level==0 then
    gpio.write(led, gpio.HIGH)
    gpio.write(led, gpio.LOW)
gpio.trig(button, "both", button_cb)

This sets up an interrupt for GPIO3 (connected to button), which triggers a call back function when the button is clicked. Lua supports anonymous inline function, similar to JQuery. So you can also write the code this way:

gpio.trig(button, "both", function(level)
  if level==0 then
    gpio.write(led, gpio.HIGH)
    gpio.write(led, gpio.LOW)

If anonymous functions are new to you, this can look a bit weird. But you will quickly get used to it, and find it convenient.

WiFi Web Server 101. While the above examples replicate what an Arduino can do, the power of ESP is in its WiFi capability and creating web services. For example, the following code creates a WiFi access point named ESPToy-xx (where xx is the last byte of the MAC address) with password opendoor:

cfg.ssid="ESPToy" .. (string.sub(wifi.ap.getmac(), 15,17))

Similarly you can easily set it to run in client mode and log on to an existing WiFi network.

Next, to create a very simple HTTP server, use the following script:

  conn:on("receive",function(conn, payload)
    conn:send("Hello, ESPToy!")

It creates a TCP server, listening to port 80. Upon receiving a web request, if sends back a simple webpage and closes the connection. Now log on to the ESPToy-xx WiFi, open a browser and type in, you will see the webpage returned by the module. If this was to be done with the AT firmware, you would have to use a microcontroller to send commands to ESP, and the code size can easily triple or quadruple the above script. So it’s a total time saver!

File System. Another advantage of the Lua firmware is that it supports a file system. The ESP-12 SMD module has 512KB flash memory space, enough to store many scripts and data files. If this was to be done on the Arduino, you would have to use a SD card shield or EEPROM shield to provide compatible size of storage. So this is yet another invaluable feature.

Using ESPlorer. To work with ESPToy 1.2, I recommend using the ESPlorer software — a Java-based GUI for easily uploading scripts to the ESP module. It supports sending individual commands, saving scripts to files, running script files, removing files. If a script named init.lua exists on the module, the firmware will automatically execute the script upon booting. This is how the startup demo is set to run.

Re-Flashing Firmware. To upgrade the firmware (to newer Lua versions), or to revert back to the AT firmware, you can use the esptool — a Python-based script. Using ESPToy, press and hold the on-board pushbutton while plugging in a mini-USB cable. This will allow the ESP module to enter bootloading mode. Then run esptool to upload a new firmware.

Resources. You can find additional information and examples projects using the Lua firmware from the following websites:

Also, you may want to check a few tutorials of the Lua programming language to get familiar with it.

Purchase Link. In conclusion, this post is meant to be a crash course of the Lua firmware and the basic usage instructions of ESPToy 1.2. This new version of ESPToy is immediately available at the Rayshobby Shop — it replaces the previous version, and is priced at $16 ($8 cheaper than the previous version!). Give it a try, and have fun!

23 Responses to “Introducing ESPToy 1.2 (with Lua Firmware)”

  1. Ramon says:


    Perfect, great project again! Can you please share the schematic for the new ESPToy 1.2? Or is it not opensource?



    • ray says:

      It is open-source. I found a couple of minor issues with the current version so I have been holding on to post the schematic. The final schematic will be posted very soon, within a week or so.

  2. John Beale says:

    If the LED is off, what is the current consumption of this device (mA)? Does it have a sleep mode that can be entered from the Lua script?

  3. John Beale says:

    I got one and it works, it is a nice little board! Wifi range is less than my home router, unsurprising considering the tiny built-in antenna (haven’t tried adding an external antenna from the u.FL connector). In case anyone else was wondering about the current draw, I measure 78 mA at 5.16 V when plugged in with the default Access Point mode running, just the small red power LED on but not the RGB LED. The current draw does not change when there is a client connected (this is with a slow reading meter, no doubt there are higher pulses during wifi transmit).

  4. Abbas says:

    I am wondering if someone explain to me and others how to receive and send data stream (Data-voice,…) by high speed to a website without using a laptop or phone to connect just after turn-on it connect to a specific web address using available wireless internet and start communicate with it.
    Many thanks

    • Mike says:

      What you are asking is beyond the capabilities of such a tiny MCU

      Voice streaming? What are you smoking?

  5. donvukovic says:

    The current schematic (v1.2) on does not have the serial port pins going to the header.
    When the USB cable is unplugged, does the CH340G power down ?
    If so, the serial port is lost to use.
    Is this something you can look into, and make available ?


    • ray says:

      Neither the CH340G nor the pin out has anything of any sort to do with enabling or disable the serial pins. Unplugging USB cable just means your computer will not be able to talk to the module through serial port, but the TX/RX pins on ESP8266 work without the USB cable. Although the current design does not map out the TX/RX pins (to be fair, few sensors these days use TX/RX because it’s very slow), you can solder wires directly to the ESP8266 module. Just locate the TX/RX pins on the module (http://tech.scargill.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/esp-12.jpg) and solder two wires.

  6. 4refr0nt says:


    Can anyone make new video for NodeMCU and ESPlorer v0.2.0-rc2 on ESPToy? (Quick Start Guide for lua programming)
    If I having this video, then I can posting link on esp8266.com (ESPlorer thread), and esp8266.ru (ESPlorer homepage)


  7. Sergei says:

    Good afternoon.
    I’m from the Russian city of Yaroslavl.
    I uchusi programming for ESP8266. How can I insert a button in the program code to the LUA for easy on LED indicator.
    in esptoy.htm and init.lua sovmesnogo to work.

    Big thank you.

  8. Mike says:

    Top product, Ray.

    I am interested in how you deploy the module with ‘demo’ website and pages and init.lua already embedded. I am looking to make some modules for my family and friends (spread around the world) and would like to be able to deploy updates as they become available. Most of them would find it extremely challenging to upgrade their device.

    I have already worked out how to install .lua pages and have them compile to .lc, now being able to deploy a firmware image with embedded lua code would be the icing on the cake – especially if I can do it OTA.



    • ray says:

      We don’t provide OTA support yet. OTA will require you to have enough flash memory space to store the firmware over the air, and I am not sure if this will be feasible.

  9. coert says:

    Feature request for those using the Arduino IDE 1.6.4 to program the ESP8266:
    Can we have an option to connect RTS (CH340#14) and DTR (CH340#13) to respectively RESET* and GPIO0 on the ESP8266? This will allow the esptool to upload programs without pressing buttons.

  10. coert says:

    Thanks. Will try to rework the boards with some jumper wires for now.

  11. Carl Hage says:

    I have the ESPToy 1.22 and am having trouble finding the pinout definitions– there are lua pins, GPIO pins on the ESP-12 module, and ESP8266 Pins. Above lua pins 1-4 are defined with GPIO numbers and the connection to the onboard LEDs and button. Oh, I see, it looks like the top white lettering are lua pins and bottom white are GPIO.

    If I want to use the node.dsleep(microSecs) it needs the ESP8266 pin 8 XPD_DCDC connected to the RST pin, but we have lua pin numbers, GPIO pin numbers, ESP8266 pin numbers, ESP-12 functional names, and ESP8266 functional names. Is there a reference that correlates all these? Which ESPToy connector pin is XPD_DCDC? It seems like it might be GPIO16/”0″.

    BTW, if I read the CH340G data sheet correctly, it seems it is supposed to detect an unconnected USB and then consume 80uA? But the ESP module is supposed to be <12uA in deep sleep. It would be nice to somehow disconnect the CH340 from the LiPo power– maybe an extra diode?

    • ray says:

      The silkscreen on the front shows Lua pin names, and GPIO names are on the back.

      On this page:
      scroll down to GPIO New Table section, there you can find the mapping between Lua pin numbers and GPIO pins. If you are using Lua firmware, use the Lua pin numbers; otherwise (e.g. if you are using Arduino for ESP8266) use GPIO numbers.

      There are some ways to minimize CH340G current consumption, which I’ve tried in the past. The modification is non-trivial though: basically you want ESP’s VCC pin disconnected from the main VCC, and instead it should connect to VCC through a schottky diode (e.g. 1N5817). Then, you also have the battery’s positive pin connected to ESP’s VCC through a second schottky diode. This way, ESP can be powered either from USB or battery, but CH340G will only be powered by USB and will not be powered from battery.

  12. George Lake says:

    Hi, can this little wonder “push” to a website? in other words, can it lets say every hour load same data some where else? HTTP, FTP or whatever?

    • ray says:

      Yes it can. Google ‘ESP8266 sensor’ and you will find plenty of examples of using this chip as a sensor and uploads data to a server periodically.

  13. Gary says:

    What am I doing wrong, I can’t talk to my ESPToy V1.3 via USB-> serial using either ESPlorer V0.2.0 – rc5, or Arduino v1.8.5,when I plug the ESPToy into the USB using Win 10, the device manager port Com3 shows the speed as being 9600 (tried changing to every value there as well) have set ESPlorer to the same speed, click on open and all it says is :-
    PORT OPEN 9600
    Communication with MCU..
    and that’s as far as I get, I tried holding the button down while plugging into the USB, got no further?
    With Arduino, I haven’t been able to find the board – ESP822 toy(mega644@16megs) or serial port to /dev/tty.wch ch340 USB -> rs232, my version shows COM3 so I assume that’s correct.

    • ray says:

      Were you trying to talk to ESPtoy as NodeMCU? The new version of ESPtoy no longer has NodeMCU firmware — instead it has a demo program done using Arduino. I highly recommend using Arduino to program it, not NodemCU.

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